• Asks why
  • Exploratory
  • Interpretative
  • Gain insight
  • Unstructured
  • Small numbers


Method of data collection

  • Focus groups
  • In-depth
  • Observation

Example assignment

  • Ethnography
  • Image and Equity
  • Concept testing
  • Advertising tests
  • Staff attitude




  • Asks what
  • Descriptive
  • Statistical Measurement
  • Structured
  • Large numbers

  • Face to face interviews
  • Telephone interviews
  • Hall tests
  • Self-completion questionnaires

  • Customer satisfaction measurement
  • Usage and attitudes
  • Product tests
  • Staff attitudes


  • Ad Tracking – periodic or continuous in-market research to monitor a brand’s performance using measures such as brand awareness, brand preference, and product usage. (Young, 2005)
  • Advertising Research – used to predict copy testing or track the efficacy of advertisements for any medium, measured by the ad’s ability to get attention, communicate the message, build the brand’s image, and motivate the consumer to purchase the product or service. (Young, 2005)
  • Brand equity research - how favorably do consumers view the brand?
  • Brand association research - what do consumers associate with the brand?
  • Brand attribute research - what are the key traits that describe the brand promise?
  • Brand name testing - what do consumers feel about the names of the products?
  • Concept testing - to test the acceptance of a concept by target consumers
  • Buyer decision processes research - to determine what motivates people to buy and what decision-making process they use
  • Copy testing – predicts in-market performance of an ad before it airs by analyzing audience levels of attention, brand linkage, motivation, entertainment, and communication, as well as breaking down the ad’s flow of attention and flow of emotion
  • Customer satisfaction research - quantitative or qualitative studies that yields an understanding of a customer's of satisfaction with a transaction
  • Demand estimation - to determine the approximate level of demand for the product
  • Distribution channel audits - to assess distributors’ and retailers’ attitudes toward a product, brand, or company
  • Marketing effectiveness and analytics - Building models and measuring results to determine the effectiveness of individual marketing activities.
  • Mystery Consumer or Mystery shopping - An employee or representative of the market research firm anonymously contacts a salesperson and indicates he or she is shopping for a product. The shopper then records the entire experience. This method is often used for quality control or for researching competitors' products.
  • Positioning research - how does the target market see the brand relative to competitors? - what does the brand stand for?
  • Price elasticity testing - to determine how sensitive customers are to price changes
  • Segmentation research - to determine the demographic, psychographic, and behavioral characteristics of potential buyers
  • Store audit - to measure the sales of a product or product line at a statistically selected store sample in order to determine market share, or to determine whether a retail store provides adequate service
  • Test marketing - a small-scale product launch used to determine the likely acceptance of the product when it is introduced into a wider market

Move to top


View Point

Could you increase your sales with better market intelligence?